Lumpy Skin Disease in Pakistan

A recurrent trans boundary infectious disease affecting cattle, domestic outdoor bathwater buffaloes, sheep, and goats is known as lumpy skin disease (LSD). The primary symptoms of lumpy skin disease are fever and outer nodular lesions on the skin, digestive tract, and respiratory tract mucous membranes. The lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), also known as the Neethling virus, is the cause. It has been classified as a cattle-specific viral illness by the W

orld Organization for Animal Health (OIE). This devastating trans boundary disease results in significant economic losses through reduced milk and meat production, miscarriages, infertility, and damaged hides. When cattle are contacted or milk and meat are consumed, LSD is not spread to humans and does not cause any harm to public health, either directly or indirectly.

The Poxviridae family includes the Capri poxvirus genus and LSDV. It shares two other Capri poxvirus species' genetic similarities; Sheep squamous pox virus (SPPV) and goat pox virus (GTPV). The double-stranded DNA genome of LSDV contains 156 protein genes and is approximately 151,000 base pairs long. Capripoxvirions typically measure 320 nm by 260 nm. Flies, mosquitoes, and ticks—arthropods that feed on blood—are the most prevalent LSDV vectors.

The control of insects, quarantines, depopulation, cleaning, and disinfection of infectious farms and herds are useful methods for reducing disease prevalence; however, vaccination is the most efficient method of prevention and control. Due to their similar antigenic structures, the GTPV and SPPV vaccines are effective against the LSD virus. Geographically, LSD was discovered for the first time in Africa in 1929 and has remained illegal in numerous African nations. The disease has rapidly and widely spread throughout eastern Europe, the southern Caucasus, and portions of the Russian Federation since 2012, Page 3/7. Since 2019, LSD has spread to a number of Asian nations. Recently, LSD has been found in India, China, and Iran, all of which share the border with Pakistan. This could indicate that Iran and India, which both border southern Pakistan, use a transboundary transmission channel.

In October of 2021, the outbreak began. The Sindh livestock department began looking into a mysterious cattle skin disease that was rapidly spreading throughout different parts of Sindh province and causing significant mortality in November 2021. LSD is still present in cows in Sindh and the southern Punjab province.

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