General Characteristics Classification and Reproduction of Xanthophyceae


The class Xanthophyceae includes individuals with yellow green tone, because of abundance of xanthophylls. Thus, the individuals are generally alluded to as "yellow green growth". 

The class incorporates around 75 genera and 375 species. Most of individuals are new water structures, not many are marine. 

General Characteristics 

1. The plant body is unicellular or multicellular. In the last case, it comprises of a basic fiber. 

2. The cell divider is regularly missing, however when present, it is made out of basically pectic substances, with more modest measures of cellulose. The cell divider is silicified in a couple of animal groups and seems to comprise of two equivalent covering parts. 

3. The plastids are yellow green, with carotenoids typically in overabundance over the chlorophylls. Photosynthetic colors incorporate chlorophyll „a‟, with almost no of chlorophyll „e‟. Chlorophyll „b‟ is missing. Xanthophylls are overwhelming, particularly ß-carotene which is available in genuinely high fixations. There is no lutein or fucoxanthin. 

4. Chromatophores are discoid and numerous in every cell. Pyrenoids are missing. 

5. Starch isn't found. Oil, fat (lipid) and a glucose polymer known as leucosin or chrysolaminarin are the typical food saves. 

6. Sexual propagation is uncommon, if present it is isogamous. In Vaucheria, sexual proliferation is ordinarily oogamous. 

7. Motile bodies contain more than one chromatophore and are whipped. Generally two flagella are available, which are of inconsistent length and are embedded at the foremost end. The more drawn out flagellum is of glitter or pantonematic type. It bears various fine flimmer hairs in two columns. The more limited flagellum is of whiplash or acronematic type, having a smooth surface. 


The class Xanthophyceae is grouped dependent on thallus structure of its individuals. The class displays morphological variety and incorporates motile and coccoid structures, just as palmelloid, filamentous and siphonaceous structures. Notwithstanding, parenchymatous and heterotrichous structures are obviously missing. 

Fritsch grouped Xanthophyceae into four requests: 

1. Heterochloridales 

2. Heterococcales 

3. Heterotrichales 

4. Heterosiphonales (Vaucheriales) 

Later Smith added two additional requests, specifically Heterocapsales and Rhizochloridales. Of the previously mentioned 6 requests, request Heterosiphonales is depicted as beneath:- 

Request Heterosiphonales (Vaucheriaceae) 

This request incorporates coenocytic siphoneous structures and in this regard, it is to some degree similar to the request Siphonales of Chlorophyceae. The multinucleate thallus isn't apportioned into cells. Thus, such structures are called „acellular‟, as opposed to unicellular. The multinucleate thallus is cylindrical and can be of assorted structures. 

The request Heterosiphonales involves two families, specifically Botrydiaceae and Vaucheriaceae. 

(a) Family Botrydiaceae – This incorporates the most crude siphoneous bladder-like coenocytic structures secured to the foundation by a rhizoidal framework. Agamic proliferation happens by biflagellate zoospores. Sexual generation is either isogamous or anisogamous. The family incorporates a monotype variety – Botrydium. 

(b) Family Vaucheriaceae-The thallus comprises of a stretched, aseptate, coenocytic fiber with apical development. The thallus is normally moored to the base by methods for extended rhizoids. Chloroplasts are various, oval or curved fit as a fiddle and need pyrenoids. The save food material is oil or fat (lipid). Starch is missing. Abiogenetic multiplication happens by the development of multiflagellate zoospores (synzoospores), aplanospores or akinetes. Sexual proliferation is commonly oogamous. The family incorporates a solitary variety – Vaucheria. 

The variety Vaucheria is depicted in detail beneath:- 



The class Vaucheria contains in excess of 40 species, of which 9 species are accounted for from India. The species are transcendently earthly or new water structures, not many are marine. Earthly structures happen on moist soil or mud-pads uncovered on evaporating of lakes and 

puddles. Oceanic structures happen in extremely shallow water of lakes and jettison or close to the bank of moderate streaming streams. 

Vaucheria sessilis and V. geminata are two broadly disseminated species in India. V.sessilis happens both ashore and in water. V. amphibia is land and/or water capable. V. piloboloides is restricted to marine waters. 


The thallus of Vaucheria is sparingly fanned, barrel shaped cylinder lacking cross dividers or septa, besides during propagation. The earthly species are secured to the base with the assistance of rhizoid-like branches 

The thallus is coenocytic as the cytoplasm and cores are not divided into particular cells. Such fibers, with cellular material that is constant, multinuclear and not divided into independent protoplasts, are called „coenocytes‟. 

Genuinely, Vaucheria is a neither a unicellular nor a multicellular structure. It is a coenocyte and has all the basics of a multicellular living being, however the cytoplasm and the various cores are not divided into unmistakable cells. Septa arrangement happens just during the development of regenerative structures or when fibers get harmed. Subsequently, Vaucheria is acellular‟ coenocytic structure and extraordinary among all green growth. 

The thallus fills long by a basic stretching of the terminal bits of the branches. 


The fiber divider is slim, powerless and needs flexibility. The cell divider is two layered – external layer is comprised of pectic substances and internal layer is cellulosic in nature. 

The key food save happens as endless oil beads. Starch isn't framed. 

The cytoplasm has common layer bound organelles, for example, mitochondria, chromatophores, little vesicles, and so forth A brief cores are available in closeness to the focal vacuole. 

The chromatophores are discoid and limited towards the fringe locale of the cytoplasm. They contain photosynthetic shades specifically chlorophyll „a‟, chlorophyll „e‟, bountiful carotenoid colors and one known Xanthophyll. Chlorophyll „b‟, regular of green growth, is inadequate. Likewise, there are no pyrenoids.


Vaucheria repeats by all the techniques – vegetative, abiogenetic and sexual. 

(a) Vegetative Reproduction – This is uncommon, and happens by fracture, in which the thallus inadvertently breaks into short portions, every one of which consequently turns out to be thick-walled and develops into another fiber. 

(b) Asexual Reproduction – This is normal and includes the development of spores of a few kinds zoospores, aplanospores and occassionally akinetes/growths/hypnospores. 

Sea-going species ordinarily imitate through zoospores, while earthbound structures show development of aplanospores. 

Zoospores – Low light force, change of medium from hurrying to even now water and complete dimness are factors which improve zoospore arrangement in Vaucheria. 

In Vaucheria, the zoospores are framed independently inside lengthen club-molded zoosporangia. Each zoosporangium structures one zoospore. Zoospores in Vaucheria are exceptional structures. They are huge multiflagellate and multinucleate, and accordingly each such zoospore is alluded to as a compound zoospore or „synzoospore‟. 

The zoosporangium creates toward the finish of a branch which gets swollen into a club-molded structure. An enormous number of cores and chloroplasts, alongside the cytoplasm, stream into and collect in the swollen tip, before it is isolated from the remainder of the fiber by a cross over septum. 

Once the zoosporangium is obviously separated a lot from the remainder of the fiber through a cross over divider, the cycle of zoospore arrangement starts. The cores and chromatophores trade their position with the goal that the cores, which were initially positioned inner to the chromatophores, presently come to lie outside to the chromatophores. 

Sets of centrioles seem once more in the lackluster fringe cytoplasm just inside the plasma layer. Each pair gets related with a core. The sporangial protoplast recoils and a couple of flagella, of fairly inconsistent length, creates inverse every core. 

Since the sporangial protoplast doesn't section into more modest compartments, the zoospore shaped in each zoosporangium of Vaucheria is huge in size, multiflagellate and multinucleate structure. It is usually called „compound‟ zoospore or „synzoospore‟. 

A develop synzoospore is enormous, yellowish green, ovoid structure. It has a shallow hyaline layer of cytoplasm containing various cores. Inner to this are various chromatophores installed in the cytoplasm which additionally contains the contractile vacuoles. In the middle is the sap vacuole, which might be navigated by strands of cytoplasm. The outside of the synzoospore is covered with various flagella, a couple inverse to every core. At the base of each pair of flagella are two blepharoplasts (centrioles). The flagella are fairly inconsistent long, yet are of whiplash type. 

In contrast to Vaucheria, different individuals from Xanthophyceae structure biflagellate, uninucleate zoospores, which are little in size and shaped in enormous numbers in each zoosporangium. 

In Vaucheria, the arrival of synzoospore is an exceptionally intriguing marvel. Once the synzoospore is adult and prepared for discharge, an apical pore is shaped by gelatinization of the zoosporangial divider and through this opening, the multiflagellate, multinucleate zoospore (synzoospore) gradually and tenderly slides out. 

The synzoospore shows a drowsy motility for a brief period and afterward stops on a reasonable foundation. Along these lines, it disposes of flagella and secretes another divider and grows to frame at least one germ tubes, which throughout some stretch of time, form into Vaucheria plant. 

Aplanospores – These are non-motile abiogenetic spores, shaped in the earthbound types of Vaucheria. The closures of short fibers or sidelong branches separate into club-molded or round aplanosporangia, which get confined from the remainder of the thallus by septum arrangement at the base. 

The aplanospores are non-motile and moderately thick-walled structures. Each aplanosporangium at last gets changed over into a solitary round to oval, dainty walled, non-flogged aplanospore, which is freed by the unpredictable burst of the sporangial divider. At times, aplanospore discharge happens through arrangement of an apical pore in the sporangial divider. The aplanospore, after freedom, grows to offer ascent to another thallus. 

Akinetes/Cysts/Hypnospores – Akinete arrangement is normal in sea-going and earthbound species which get presented to more prominent parching or low temperature. 

The extended fiber isolates into lines of short fragments by thick, coagulated cross dividers. Their protoplasts become loaded down with oil beads. These resting, multinucleate thick walled fragments are known as the akinetes/growths or hypnospores. Akinetes may stay associated in a chain and in its appearance, the Vaucheria fiber may take after another alga called Gongrosira. This stage, in the life-pattern of Vaucheria, has accordingly come to be known as Gongrosira stage. 

Sexual Reproduction 

Vaucheria species might be either homothallic or heterothallic. In homothallic species, an antheridium lies in nearness to an oogonium, or an antheridium may have oogonia on either sides, on a similar fiber. In heterothallic species, fibers bear just antheridia or oogonia. 

Antheridia and oogonia might be sessile or followed and begin as projections which progressively fill in measure and collect an enormous number of cores and chromatophores. 

At the point when antheridia and oogonia are completely separated, cross over septa arrangement happens at their bases, in this manner disconnecting them from the remainder of the thallus. 

The antheridia are for the most part rounded, with their apices somewhat bended or wound. For the most part a develop antheridium shows up as a bended, snare like structure. 

gamete. It is motile, with two horizontally embedded flagella-one acronematic and the other pantonematic. The sperms are freed from the antheridium after break of the antheridial divider at the terminal end. Sperms are freed from the antheridium at the same time, in enormous numbers. 

A develop oogonium is enormous, round or oval, with a wide base. It has huge number of cores, chromatophores and is stacked with oil beads. A develop oogonium structures a solitary egg, which capacities as the female gamete. A cross over septum is framed at the base of the oogonium and hence, it builds up a responsive district called the „beak‟, which has an opening at the top, through which sperms enter the oogonium at the hour of treatment.

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