Glycobiology Glycoprotein Sugar Chains Convey Possibly More Organic Data than DNA


Sugars generally happening in relationship with Proteins and Lipids are called Glycoconjugates. These Glycoconjugates are key sub-atomic parts in each feature of human science and medication, including for all intents and purposes each irresistible or non-irresistible infection that plague humankind. Glycosylation changes assume a crucial function being developed, separation, danger, and phylogeny in living creatures. 

Sugar Chains Convey Possibly More Organic Data than DNA 

Sugar chains can convey possibly more natural data than DNA for the accompanying explanation: for DNA, data content depends just on the quantity of various nonnumeric units and their arrangement. For sugar polymers, the data content depends on four factors: the quantity of monosaccharide units, their grouping, just as the anomeric compliance of the glycosidic units just as the event of branch focuses. Therefore, sugar polymers can convey significantly more data per unit weight than nucleic acids. 

Mucopolysaccharides Or Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs ) 

1. Mucopolysaccharides get their name from their sludge – like consistency ( Latin , Mucus = ooze). They are coagulated substances. 

2. Mucopolysaccharides are hetero polysaccharides since they yield numerous Types of monosaccharide on hydrolysis. 

3. They are made out of combination of sugars, for example, amino sugars, uronic acids 

4. They are exceptionally hydrated, gel like tacky substances bearing unmistakable negative charge. 

5. They have high sub-atomic load up to 5 million. 

6. They are found in extra cell material 

7. They fill in as oils and organic concretes. 

8. They are not found in free state yet bound with proteins. Such hetero macromolecules are called proteoglycons. 

9. The regular instances of mucopolysaccharides are 

a) Hyluronic acid b) Chondritin c) Chondriotin sulfate 

d) Dermatan sulfate e) Kato sulfate f) Heparin 

g) Blood bunch substances h) Agar agar I) Bacterial cell divider 


1. They are available in the extra cell network of the cell and holds the cells together. 

2. They are having high thickness and adversely charged and limit frightful powers from environmental factors. 

3. The explicit example of sulfated and non-sulfated sugar buildups in Glycosaminoglycans gives explicit acknowledgment by a Varity of protein ligands that ties electro statically to those atoms. 

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a group of linier hetero-polysaccharides prominently called as mucopolysaccharides. They contain basically sugars (95%), with a little measure of protein. They are heteropolysaccharids comprised of two rotating units. One is N acetyl glycosamine or N.Actyl galactosa mine; the other is a uronic corrosive 

Models are Hyaluronate, Chondroitin 4 sulfate, Keratin sulfate , Dermatan sulfate 

Elements of Mucopolysaccharides: 

1. Hyluronate give rigidity to ligament and ligaments. 

2. Enzyme Hyluronidase is helpful in sperm section and treatment 

3. Chondriotin sulfate underpins the dividers of aorta. 

4. Dermatan sulfate is helpful working of heart valves 

5. Keratin sulfate is available in cornea, horns, hair, feet, nails and hooks. 

6. Heparin is an anticoagulant. 


Glycoproteins are basically proteins with more modest and variable measures of starches. They contain sugar as prosthetic gathering. On hydrolysis they yield amino sugars. 

They are found in the external substance of plasma film. They are having high fondness authoritative with proteins. They are two sorts 

1.O-glycosidic connected 

2. N-glycosidic connected 

1. O-glycosidic connected : 

These sugars covalently connected to protein through O-glycosidic linkages to Ser/Thr deposits 

2. N-glycosidic connected 

They are N - glycosidic linkages to Asparagine deposits 

The sugars that are available in the Glycoproteins are recorded beneath: 

Pentoses : Arabinoise ; Xylose 

Methyl Pentose : L-Fucose 

Hexoses : Manose , Galactose 

Acetyl hexosamines : N-Acetyl Hexosamine; N-Acetyl Galactosamine Saialic acid : N-Acetyl Neurominic corrosive 

The General Function of Glycoproteins 

1) Receptors on the cell film 

2) Structural segments of cell films (Integral and cytoskeletal proteins) 

3) Extra cell and multiadhesive framework proteins 

4) Cytoplasmic, chromatin, and atomic proteins 

5) Enzymes (for example glycosyltransferases 

Variety of Elements of Glycoproteins with in the Cell is Different—Take for Instance 

1. Receptors and necessary film proteins (layers) 

2. Cytoskeletal proteins (cytoplasm) 

3. Extra cell proteins, for example, antibodies, hormones, collagen (discovered external the cell) 

4. Enzymes (RNAse, DNAse, Lipases, Cholinesterase, Phosphatase, Pepsinogen, Glycosyltransferases) 

The utilitarian outcomes of altering or wiping out oligosaccharide chains on glycoproteins can bring about imperfections in: 

1. Cell surface articulation 

2. Biosynthesis and collapsing 

3. Stability in the ER 

4. Rate of emission 

5. Intracellular dealing 

6. Intracellular security and pace of turnover 

7. Specificity of capacity 

8. Activity of chemicals, hormones and cytokines 

9. Signal transduction capacity of receptors 

10. Susceptibility to proteases or denaturants 

11. Recognition by antibodies 

12. Circulatory half-life 


1. Glycolipids are lipids consolidated to sugars 

2. They are compound lipids 

3. They are found in the cerebrum and myelin sheath of neurons. 

4. Cere brocide and gangliosides are model for glycolipids. 

Structure of Cerebroid 

Cerebroid are comprised of the accompanying three parts 

1. Sphingol-a liquor 

2. A unsaturated fat 

3. A galactose or glucose 

In light of the unsaturated fats the Cerebroid are grouped into three kinds 

1. Keratin : It contains lignoiceric corrosive 

2. Cerebron : It contains cerebronic corrosive 

3. Nervon : It contains Nervonic corrosive 

4. Oxynervon : It contains oxynervonic corrosive. 

Properties of Glycolipids 

1. Glycolipids are solids. They are as gems 

2. They are dissolvable in fat solvents 

3. They are optically dynamic 

4. On hydrolysis a glycolipids yield the accompanying parts 

i. Sphingol-a liquor 

ii. A unsaturated fat 

iii. A galactose or glucose 


1. Glycolipids are fundamental for fat digestion 

2. They are engaged with transmission of nerve motivation 

3. They forestall greasy liver 

4. When the Cerebrocide are not used, they collect in the body and cause an infection called Gauchers illness. It is an acquired illness. It is because of the lack of a compound called Cerebrocide. 

Clinical Significances of Sphingolipids 

Sphingolipids are those that give antigenic determinants on the surfaces of cells, especially the erythrocytes. The ABO blood bunch antigens are the starch moieties of glycolipids on the outside of cells just as the sugar bit of serum glycoproteins. At the point when present on the outside of cells the ABO sugars are connected to sphingolipid and are in this manner of the glycosphingolipid class. 

At the point when the ABO sugars are related with protein as glycoproteins they are found in the serum and are alluded to as the discharged structures. A few people produce the glycoprotein types of the ABO antigens while others don't. This property recognizes secretors from non-secretors, a property that has criminological significance, for example, in instances of assault 

Explicit Functions of Carbohydrate Residues on Glycoconjugates 

1) Increases water dissolvability 

2) Stabilizes proteins from proteolysis 

3) Serves as "acknowledgment signals" for take-up and obliteration 

4) Serves as "arranging signals" in the ER and Golgi 

5) Serves as "conformational determinants" perceived by "arranging" apparatus 


Blood is considered as embodiment of life and accepted to battle assortment of infections. Blood bonding was found after the revelation of various blood bunch frameworks. First Land Steiner found ABO blood bunch framework in 1900. Later a lot more blood bunch antigens were recognized. They are A few antigens have been recognized and happen just or infrequently in certain individual families which are called as private antigens. 

ABO blood bunch framework 

ABO framework has 4 blood bunches by presence or nonattendance of two unmistakable antigens. (An and B). The serum contains iso antibodies explicit for the antigen that is immunizer on the red cell. 

group Antigen on RBC Antibody in serum 

A A Anti – B 

B B Anti - A 

AB A and B

Against An and Anti B 

The example of appropriation of antigen counter acting agent unmistakably shows the antigen An and Anti A neutralizer won't exists together in a similar blood. In the event that they exist together in a similar blood agglutination or lyses happens. 

Compound nature of Blood gatherings 

Antigen An or B is a Glycoprotein having an oligosaccharide stem appended to a Protein Core. These oligosaccharides contain straightforward sugar subordinates, for example, Galactose, Fucose, Galacotosamine and Glucosamine. 

An and B Antigens Vary Just in Terminal Sugars. 

R speaks to the linkage to protein in the emitted structures sphingolipid in the cell-surface bound structure. 

open square = GlcNAc, open jewel = galactose, filled square = fucose, 

filled precious stone = GalNAc, filled jewel = sialic corrosive (NANA) 

Function of Sugars in Biology 

1. Cell grip sugar buildups fill in as acknowledgment locales for cell bond atoms (significant in cell relocation, for example lymphocyte homing) 

2. Tumor metastasis/disease sugar deposits fill in as substrates for authoritative or holding cells together; loss of this capacity to moor cells considers metastasis of harmful cells. 

3. Lymphocyte homing-sugar buildups intervene the acknowledgment and combination of lymphocytes layers by HIV viral films 

4. Migration-cells briefly "stick" to vein dividers through cell bond particles, for example, vcam-1, icam-1, and e-selectin. Sequential "c

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