What is Molecular Markers ?Advantages of Molecular Markers over Morphological and Biochemical Markers

Atomic markers are sections of DNA, holding any sort of variety that can be utilized to separate any two people, species or populaces. They are liked over morphological or biochemical markers as they are undeniably more plentiful and polymorphic. Variety in the DNA arrangement is the premise of improvement of sub-atomic markers. This variety can be because of addition or erasure of at least one bases or single base replacements. 

Sub-atomic markers might be hybridization based or PCR based. RFLP were the main atomic markers to be utilized. The technique for RFLP examination depends on probation processing followed by settling of absorption items and their resulting hybridization with a named test. RFLP gives co-prevailing markers yet the strategy is exceptionally repetitive and includes radioactive location. Today, there are numerous PCR – based markers accessible which are undeniably more helpful to utilize, and have in this way supplanted RFLP investigation. 

The PCR – based markers were the second era markers that were grown at first were those which didn't need succession data of a creature and included discretionary groundworks, just like the case in RAPD. RAPD and AFLP marker frameworks are PCR based markers which identify multi-locus polymorphism. However, RAPD has low reproducibility and AFLP includes a perplexing technique of both PCR intensification and hybridization. Thusly, their utilization is restricted to species in which sequencing data isn't accessible. 

In species where sequencing data is accessible or can be produced anew by different ongoing strategies, third era markers are liked. These are SSRs and SNPs. SSRs are rehashes in the DNA going from mono-to hex nucleotide. They are not difficult to recognize, are profoundly factor and generally co-predominant. SNPs are additionally acceptable wellspring of markers as they are the most bountiful kind of polymorphisms in the genome. They are additionally co-predominant in nature. The lone constraint at present being used of SNPs is the significant expense of advancement and measure. 

These previously mentioned marker frameworks can be considered as agent marker frameworks to examine sub-atomic markers, as they are most habitually utilized. There are additionally other marker frameworks accessible. 

Sub-atomic markers are utilized for an assortment of purposes, the fundamental being their utilization in plant rearing. They can be utilized for surveying hereditary variety between various plants, development of linkage maps for various yields and do marker helped reproducing. 

DNA fingerprinting is a significant use of sub-atomic markers, which, aside from plant reproducing, is exceptionally helpful in germplasm protection and criminology.

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